Spring is Here Early Again

The 2019-2020 has been extremely mild.  With cool (but not cold) temperatures and very little frozen ground, disease activity has begun early.  The constant rain has also sped disease development.   In the last two weeks of February I saw active basal rot anthracnose, Fusarium patch (pink snow mold) and root Pythium on Poa.  The root Pythium was on covered greens so that surely increase disease activity but I have no doubt we are looking at a repeat of last spring with widely prevalent root-rot Pythium and Pythium dysfunction.  Temperatures reached 60°F last week in Southern RI and next week is predicted to be mid-50’s all week.  At least one RI superintendent charged his irrigation on

Pythium is everywhere!

Root-rot Pythium on Poa and Pythium dysfunction on bentgrass are currently widespread.  This will be the 3rd year in a row that we have seen significant activity from these pathogens during this time frame.  Samples are showing up across the Northeast.  The thing that connects these three years is the weather.  The spring of 2017, 2018 and 2019 have been extremely wet.  This is in contrast to 2016 which was unusually dry.   Just about every sample I have seen in the past two months has some level of root Pythium infection (if superintendents have not sprayed preventatively).  Root Pythium typically moves very slowly and nibbles away at root mass.  If left uncontrolled, the end result is that by June, all roots are gone or dysfunctional and plants struggle through the summer.  Unfortunately, we are now seeing a type of Pythium Patch that usually occurs in the summer.  Root-rot Pythium, specifically Pythium torulosum, is beginning in the roots and creeping into the crowns, creating ugly, yellow rings and chlorotic turf.  This is a new phenomenon which we assumed could only happen in August.  It is now happening in April and has been identified in Rhode Island, Massachusetts and Connecticut.  See my March 2018 update (below) for additional details on management.

Categories: Weekly Update

Nematodes on the March (or Wiggle….)

It’s about this time of year when superintendents start asking me, “When should I start sampling my greens for nematodes?” This is a difficult question to answer because it’s a moving target. There really is no specific answer. Firstly, ever year is different. Some springs are warm, some are cold, some are wet and some are dry. If there is still snow on the ground, it’s probably not worth sampling. But that’s only because you can’t treat over snow. When the soil is not frozen, nematodes will be feeding, even under snow. Usually this is at a low level and not a problem but residual fall populations can remain very high throughout the winter, even in frozen soils. Last year, Russian scientists reported resurrecting nematodes that had been frozen in the Siberian tundra for 41,700 years. So nematodes are pretty hardy. If we get an early thaw or a very warm winter, sampling earlier is better. When we talk about insects, we think about “generations”. ABW might have 3 generations over the growing season. Nematodes do not usually have generations. Nematode life-cycles are temperature dependent. In turf soil, they just reproduce and feed continually, in direct proportion to the amount of heat in the soil. The warmer it is, the more feeding damage they cause and the more eggs they lay. Eggs usually hatch quickly after being laid so populations can grow rapidly with warm temperatures. Unfortunately, this can even happen with nematicides in place, especially towards the end of an application interval.

Secondly, if you have sampled before and have never had a problem, you may not need to track as regularly. If you did a late fall application, your spring numbers are likely to be low and you may not need to sample until the end of May or June. And if you have made a spring application without sampling, you may not need to formally check your numbers until the summer (although it never hurts to be prudent and check earlier). Sadly, it turns out that even after years of research, we don’t have a good handle on why some courses have perennial nematode problems and others do not. We do know that push-up greens are more susceptible to nematodes. We also know that many nematodes prefer Poa and velvet bentgrass. And older courses usually have more nematodes than newer courses. But newer courses are built on sand with lots of creeping bentgrass so each one of the variables we identify is strongly linked! It’s difficult to separate these factors experimentally. In general, new sand based greens rarely even see significant nematode populations within the first 10 years.

So to answer the question, my standard reply is “the end of March or beginning of April”. But that could shift earlier or later, based on the weather. If is it a very wet spring, nematodes are not going to do very well and populations will remain lower for longer. But in February 2018, I tested greens from a Rhode Island golf course that had stunt nematode levels reaching 21,000 nematodes/100 cc soil. You read that correctly: 21,000. The threshold for this sample was approximately 2,000 nematodes. And at 21,000 stunt nematodes, rooting will be minimal into April and turf will be lost by July. We always hope that the winter will result in some nematode mortality but as mentioned previously, nematodes are very hardy. We don’t always see a significant drop in numbers even in the coldest winters. Water may be more important than temperature.

Sampling technique is as important as sampling timing. It is important to note that a single sampling or single green is not going to tell you much. Nematode populations change over time and they are not the same on every green. My recommendation is to pick three greens. They can be the worst quality greens but they should not be the best quality greens. Or they can all be mediocre quality greens. Avoiding the best quality greens is important because these are likely to have the lowest nematode populations or have the best environmental conditions, making them more resistant to nematode damage. Quality isn’t always easy to define but you know it when you see it and you’ll have past seasons to tell you who the troublemakers are. Once you have your greens picked, do three annual samplings. Start with late March/early April. If nematodes are low, great. If not, you can treat and your root mass will respond accordingly. Then check again in mid/late May. Once again, nematode populations are increasing. If they were low in April, they could still be low. Or not. Do at least one more sampling in the end of June or beginning of July. This is when populations are really going to climb. If they are low, you are probably good for the rest of the year. If they are high, treat. If the fall is very warm and long, like in 2017, additional sampling in September or October may be required. But it all depends on which chemicals you have applied and how your roots are growing. We have seen populations that were treated in June bounce back by October but this matters less if you have an actively growing root system in the fall.

While cup-cutters can be used to suggest a nematode-related issue, they are not the best strategy. If you are going to track your nematodes regularly, you need the data to be repeatable and comparable. The only way to get this type of reliable data is to take composite samples. For each green you want to sample, you need to take 20-25 cores and combine them in one bag. This is an average, or composite sample. Cores should be taken an approximately equal distance from each other (5 foot centers is common) and they should form a grid. The more cores you take, the more reliable the data. Thirty cores is a very good number of cores, 20 is a minimum amount. In addition, every time the green is resampled, the cores should be taken from the same area of the green. Repeatability is important in comparing numbers across time.

There isn’t one specific formula for tracking and treating nematodes. Almost everything happening on a golf course is primarily influenced by weather conditions and nematodes are no different. But I do not recommend treating preventatively. We treat fungal disease preventatively because we know dollar spot is going to pop up or that Pythium blight will be a problem in a certain area after a string of 90° days. But nematodes are more fickle. If you spend a lot of money treating in April, your nematicide may no longer be working in July. And you might have to do it again. And you may not have needed it in the first place. Ultimately, you may be spending a good piece of your budget and be putting an unnecessary application into the environment. The only way to know if you need to treat is to track your nematodes. And once your numbers are determined, we can talk about the right strategy based on the numbers, your budget, greens conditions and time of year.

Finally, most of what I’ve outlined really only applies to nematodes in the northern Unites States. South of the Mason-Dixon line, nematodes go from being a manageable problem to being an outright scourge. If you are fighting sting nematodes and growing bermudagrass, all bets are off. Fortunately, both of these organisms are still dissuaded from taking root in the North because of our cold winters.

Categories: Weekly Update

Winter has arrived.

Temperatures have oscillated wildly from freezing to balmy in the past few weeks but the rainy conditions of 2018 have continued into 2019.  Although Southern New England has not seen any snow, there has been plenty of rain and fog.  These conditions are perfect for Pink Snow Mold, especially with temperature spikes into the high 40’s on a regular basis and the rain continues.  I recommend regular scouting to look for signs and small spots of the disease.  Pink Snow Mold moves quickly.  If the ground is already wet when snow cover arrives, that will exacerbate disease.  If you see the disease, even a granular fungicide application will be useful.  The diagnostic lab will be open starting January 14th until Christmas of 2019.

Categories: Weekly Update

Time for preventative Pythium applications.

With the snow melting and mild weather on the way, it is time to start planning preventative Pythium applications.  Bentgrass is primarily infected with Pythium volutum while Poa annua is the target of Pythium torulosum but both of these organisms will come out of dormancy and begin to attack turf roots once the soil thaws and temperatures start climbing.  It’s very difficult to pick a day off the calendar to make these applications but I with current weather pattern and predicted temperatures, the first week of April looks like a good opportunity to start.  Keep in mind that any material needs to be watered in and highest available rates should be used.  The type of Pythium present will often determine the material to choose but Subdue does not generally work well for root Pythium and a second application will likely be required around the beginning of April.  Also, DO NOT make applications when rain is expected because precipitation can push the material past the root zone.

Categories: Managment Practices

Cooler Weather Means Recovery

With cooler nights and drier days, turf across New England is beginning to recover from the high heat and humidity of the end of July.  As night-time temperatures continue to decrease into the 50’s, turfgrass plant health and vigor will improve.  However, plants that have seen significant root atrophy from difficult summer conditions and high humidity will not bounce back immediately.  Root growth requires time.  If you have experienced significant summer damage, the best strategy is to cut high, vent frequently and ensure adequate fertilizer levels.  Overseeding is also usually required.  Greens speed will likely decrease but sacrificing speed now will ensure quicker recovery into September.

Categories: Weekly Update

Humidity Sucks

There is no better way to put it than to say that for bentgrass, humidity sucks.  Bentgrass declines rapidly when dew points reach 65-70°.   When air humidity is high for extended time periods, bentgrass stops moving water out of the soil.  The process of evapotranspiration stops and plants essentially stew in their own juices.  Roots suffocate and plants thin and die. Pocketed and shaded greens suffer first and suffer fast. Poa does fine.  It’s a weed and has no problem with saturation. That is its preferred condition and why most push-ups are Poa.  People often think that it is heat that kills bentgrass but this is not strictly true.  Shadow Creek in Las Vegas is a great example.  With bentgrass tees and greens, it performs flawlessly, even in 105° heat.  But as the saying goes “It’s a dry heat!”  Obviously, not all CBG varieties are suited to that level of heat but in general, wet soil and wet air kill bentgrass, not heat.  So punch some holes and pull out the fans.  And lets hope this is a short summer….

Categories: Weekly Update

Don’t forget wetting agent applications

Even though it is currently very humid in the Northeast, I am still seeing a lot of localized dry spot samples in the lab. Because of the wet spring, many courses decided to forgo traditional wetting agent programs. The result has been quickly developing LDS problems as soon as soils dry out.  It is not too late to put out your wetting agents but it may require more applications than normal for it to be effective and recovery from LDS may take longer than normal.  Some courses are seeing good wetting agent penetration down to an inch but the material stops and won’t move any further.  Additional water, wetting agent and venting are required in these cases, to push the material down.  Check your profile a day after wetting agent application to make sure it is working properly.

Categories: Weekly Update

Chilling Injury

Although the winter of 2015-2016 has been unusually warm (winter temperatures did not even arrive until mid-January and many courses were mowing into December) the Northeast has experienced about a foot of total snow and a significant amount of rain during February.  Temperatures continue to oscillate between the 20’s and 50’s on a daily basis and while winterkill and crown hydration are unlikely, this shifting weather has resulted in a few cases of chilling injury.  Chilling injury is more common on bermudagrass but I’ve seen it on both Poa annua and creeping bentgrass/KBG mixes this winter.  Injured turf generally has a VERY unusual appearance, as if aliens has landed on it, and damage follows waves and curves.  Fortunately, injury is limited to leaves and plants recover quickly when incubated.  The clincher for this type of injury is that it occurs on surfaces treated for snow mold as well as on untreated surfaces.  While it can be ugly, quick recovery can be expected once the spring arrives.

Categories: Weekly Update

All Quiet….

As most superintendents in Southern New England are aware, winterkill was a major problem from NYC to Boston by the time the snow melted in April.  However, once turf recovered, we were rewarded with a cool and surprisingly dry spring.  Although this year has not been as good as last year in the Northeast for growing grass, it is certainly a close second.  Since the season began I have seen very little disease in my lab.  Approximately 3 weeks ago the summer heat arrived with high humidity but even Pythium blight has only been sporadic. Dollar spot activity has picked up in the past few weeks but if fungicide coverage is in place, it has not been a problem. The only other disease of note  is the occasional bout of basal rot anthracnose, likely a result of the high humidity. Some foliar anthracnose was apparent in June on bentgrass (in response to drought). Water reserves are still holding and I have not gotten any complaints about ponds running dry. Summer patch has been completely absent this year. Unfortunately, golf courses with nematode problems are still experiencing problems. The snows of January and February probably did a good job of insulating them from temperature extremes.  With any luck, the summer heat will start to tail off in the next couple weeks and injury from traffic and high soil temperatures will start to recover.

Categories: Uncategorized